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Wednesday, December 14

  1. page Big Data edited ... So far we have used a variety of terms to represent different amounts of data. Unless you know…
    ...
    So far we have used a variety of terms to represent different amounts of data. Unless you know how much each of these is you won’t really know when to say, “Wow!”
    Here is the ladder of names of numbers that go from a little to a humungous amount of data.
    Name Symbol Quantity Approximate Equivalents
    byte b 10000 b = 1 b A single character such as “q” or “3”
    kilobyte kb 10001 b = 1000 b 1000 letters - about 125 words
    megabyte Mb 10002 b = 1000 kb A novel - about 125,000 words or one color image
    gigabyte Gb 10003 b = 1000 Mb Amount of memory in smart phone or computer = 1000 novels = ten years of assiduous reading
    terabyte Tb 10004 b = 1000 Gb A huge library of books = 100,000 volumes
    petabyte Pb 10005 b = 1000 Tb All the books ever published
    exabyte Eb 10006 b = 1000 Pb Number of stars in the galaxy
    zettabyte Zb 10007 b = 1000 Eb The entire contents of the Internet in 2016
    {How Much is Petabyte table.jpg}
    You can see that each of these names is for a quantity 1000 times bigger than the previous name. In terms of data storage, the first computer floppy disks held a few hundred kb, early hard drives had tens of Mb capacity, and in 2016, flash drives (thumb drives) typically held up to a few tens of Gb. A human brain is estimated to be able to store a few petabytes of data (http://www.livescience.com/53751-brain-could-store-internet.html).
    Looking at this table, you can see that the 100 Tb of data generated each day by FaceBook users is truly Big Data, but still is only about a billionth of the entire Internet.
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    1:54 pm
  2. page Big Data edited WHAT IS BIG DATA? Do you have a fitness watch? Nearly 30 million Americans do, each generating …

    WHAT IS BIG DATA?
    Do you have a fitness watch? Nearly 30 million Americans do, each generating about 2 to 5 gigabytes of mostly numeric data each day.
    Do you post on FaceBook? Billions of people do, producing about 3 billion new postings and 150 million likes, or 100 terabytes of non-numeric data, each day.
    Do you shop at Walmart? Every hour Walmart processes about 1 million customer transactions, which add up to about 40 petabytes of data per day.
    These are just a few examples of the huge amount of new data being created, stored and analyzed every day. This is such a new phenomenon that it has a name, Big Data. Here is a poster that summarizes Big Data creation from multiple sources for each MINUTE of a day!
    From: https://www.domo.com/blog/2012/06/how-much-data-is-created-every-minute/
    Of course, this is old – it is from 2011 when only 2.1 billion people were connected to the Internet. By mid-2106 the number was 3.4 billion, or 46% of the entire world’s population, including babies, Eskimos and undiscovered tribes living in the headwaters of the Amazon.
    From: http://www.internetlivestats.com/i`nternet-users/
    This bar graph shows the rapid rise in the number of Internet users. You can extrapolate it to estimate that 100% of the world’s population will be connected to the Internet by 2032. As will many cars, refrigerators, toasters, heart monitors, and who-knows what else. The idea that many different types of machines will collect data has a name – the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT will be a major source of Big Data, for there are many more things than people.
    All of these things will share data; in fact, that already happens in many places. Consider the example of data sharing within modern airplanes. An aircraft’s onboard computers collect data on wind speed, air temperature and turbulence from aircraft sensors and from the National Weather Service; location and altitude from its GPS; and locations and paths of other planes in the area from the aircraft’s radar and from air traffic control. The plane’s computers automatically consider all of this data to constantly adjust it’s navigation, speed, and altitude to fly at the optimum altitude and speed to arrive safely at its destination on time, with the lowest fuel use. And then the computer automatically lands the plane. The benefit of IoT in this case is that aircraft computers can ingest vastly more data, instantly analyze it, and act on it faster than a human pilot can. The same is happening now with self-driving cars.
    Each Internet user involuntarily contributes data about websites visited, terms searched, items purchased, messages, pictures and emails sent, and videos watched. This often benefits you, causing the ads that your device displays to be of items that you have searched for previously. And your credit card company tracks your location when you buy a Blizzard at Dairy Queen so that if 30 minutes later your credit card is presented to make a purchase in Nigeria, the company knows that it is unlikely to be an legitimate user.
    FORGET PRIVACY
    No one online has any privacy. Corporations and governments collect information on every keystroke you make, and even capture your location using your mobile phone when it is turned off. As became clear in 2016, governments and corporations cannot protect the data they collect. Foreign governments and individuals can hack nearly any computer system, stealing personal and institutional information. Nearly anything you post online – credit card information, medical prescriptions, political rants, sexting pictures – may end up being posted on Facebook or used against you by mean, stupid or criminal people, or by job interviewers.
    The purpose of this educational activity that you are reading right now is to describe Big Data and specifically how it can be used to improve people’s health, and even maybe become a career option. But remember, most big data is used to sell you stuff or to spy on you. Be warned (and don’t fret, there is almost nothing you can do about it if you stay online.)
    Some commentators consider Big Data to be a “radically new kind of ‘knowledge infrastructure’” that is rapidly developing and will change everything. That is true and it has many positive effects. We are moving into a world where computers will know more about what you buy, where you go, who you call, what medicines you take, and what you watch than your mother ever did. Ads (from NetFlicks or a political candidate) will be crafted specifically to target your known habits and inferred personality. You will think you are making up your own mind, but you will be manipulated to make decisions that favor corporations and politicians. Can The Matrix be far behind?
    (Quote above from page 1 of The Promises and Perils of Big Data (2010)
    https://assets.aspeninstitute.org/content/uploads/files/content/docs/pubs/The_Promise_and_Peril_of_Big_Data.pdf )
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a major center for Big Data research and education. Alex Pentland, a MIT professor, says that using the GPS data from a person’s smartphone and their credit-card transactions provides more valuable information about them than where they go online or comments they make on social media. Pentland summarizes, “What people do is deemed critical by social physics researchers, not what they say or think.”
    (From Datanami at https://www.datanami.com/2014/05/21/social-physics-harnesses-big-data-predict-human-behavior/)
    In addition to all of the commercial and human data being generated, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope, various other telescopes, and satellites orbiting Earth, Sun, Moon, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn acquire thousands of terabytes of data each day.
    IBM, the computer corporation, estimates that a total of 2.5 quintillion (2.5 billion billion) bytes of data are created each day. The rapid increase in the amount of data being created means that 90% of all the data that exists has been created in the last two years.
    (From: https://www-01.ibm.com/software/data/bigdata/what-is-big-data.html)
    Humanity is awash in torrents of data; we have no choice but to learn how to handle it. Many, many new jobs are coming into existence for data analysts – you could get one of them.
    Is or Are?
    BTW, the word data is plural (datum is singular) so to speak correctly one should say, “Data are critical for understanding climate.” But many people use data as if it were singular, “Data is critical for understanding climate.” Ugh, that is wrong and we won’t do it. But the phrase Big Data is considered to be singular because it is a name of a concept. So in this document, we use data as a plural noun, and Big Data is a singular concept.
    How much is a Petabyte?
    So far we have used a variety of terms to represent different amounts of data. Unless you know how much each of these is you won’t really know when to say, “Wow!”
    Here is the ladder of names of numbers that go from a little to a humungous amount of data.
    Name Symbol Quantity Approximate Equivalents
    byte b 10000 b = 1 b A single character such as “q” or “3”
    kilobyte kb 10001 b = 1000 b 1000 letters - about 125 words
    megabyte Mb 10002 b = 1000 kb A novel - about 125,000 words or one color image
    gigabyte Gb 10003 b = 1000 Mb Amount of memory in smart phone or computer = 1000 novels = ten years of assiduous reading
    terabyte Tb 10004 b = 1000 Gb A huge library of books = 100,000 volumes
    petabyte Pb 10005 b = 1000 Tb All the books ever published
    exabyte Eb 10006 b = 1000 Pb Number of stars in the galaxy
    zettabyte Zb 10007 b = 1000 Eb The entire contents of the Internet in 2016
    You can see that each of these names is for a quantity 1000 times bigger than the previous name. In terms of data storage, the first computer floppy disks held a few hundred kb, early hard drives had tens of Mb capacity, and in 2016, flash drives (thumb drives) typically held up to a few tens of Gb. A human brain is estimated to be able to store a few petabytes of data (http://www.livescience.com/53751-brain-could-store-internet.html).
    Looking at this table, you can see that the 100 Tb of data generated each day by FaceBook users is truly Big Data, but still is only about a billionth of the entire Internet.

    (view changes)
    1:45 pm
  3. page Pandem-Data edited ... Modeling Infectious Diseases with Big Data Big Data Careers ... teachers' page that provi…
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    Modeling Infectious Diseases with Big Data
    Big Data Careers
    ...
    teachers' page that provideswith guidance on
    (view changes)
    1:37 pm
  4. page Pandem-Data edited {Big Data title.jpg} Pandem-Data explores how the use of large amounts of diverse data (Big Data…
    {Big Data title.jpg}
    Pandem-Data explores how the use of large amounts of diverse data (Big Data) can improve the modeling of the spread of infection diseases. In this website we provide students information on Big Data, how infectious diseases spread, how to use Big Date-infused models, and careers possibilities. Have fun!
    Here is a teachers' page that provides guidance on teaching this material.
    Big Data
    Infectious Diseases
    Modeling Infectious Diseases with Big Data
    Big Data Careers
    Here is a teachers' page that provides guidance on teaching this material.
    (view changes)
    1:36 pm
  5. page Pandem-Data edited ... Pandem-Data explores how the use of large amounts of diverse data (Big Data) can improve the m…
    ...
    Pandem-Data explores how the use of large amounts of diverse data (Big Data) can improve the modeling of the spread of infection diseases. In this website we provide students information on Big Data, how infectious diseases spread, how to use Big Date-infused models, and careers possibilities. Have fun!
    Here is a teachers' page that provides guidance on teaching this material.
    ...Big Data......Infectious Diseases......ModelingBig Data
    Infectious Diseases
    Modeling
    Infectious Diseases with Big Data......Big Data Careers...
    Big Data Careers

    (view changes)
    1:36 pm
  6. page Pandem-Data edited {Big Data title.jpg} Pandem-Data explores how the use of large amounts of diverse data (Big Da…
    {Big Data title.jpg}
    Pandem-Data explores how the use of large amounts of diverse data (Big Data) can improve the modeling of the spread of infection diseases. In this website we provide students information on Big Data, how infectious diseases spread, how to use Big Date-infused models, and careers possibilities. Have fun!
    Here is a teachers' page that provides guidance on teaching this material.
    Big Data
    Infectious Diseases
    Modeling
    ...Big Data......Infectious Diseases......Modeling Infectious Diseases with Big Data......Big Data
    Big Data Careers
    Careers...
    (view changes)
    1:34 pm
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